Tag Archives: supervolcano

Download and Watch Movie Why Him? (2016)

Why Him? (2016) HD

Director : John Hamburg.
Writer : John Hamburg, Ian Helfer, Nicholas Stoller.
Release : December 22, 2016
Country : United States of America.
Production Company : 21 Laps Entertainment, Red Hour Films.
Language : English.
Runtime : 111 min.
Genre : Comedy.

‘Why Him?’ is a movie genre Comedy, was released in December 22, 2016. John Hamburg was directed this movie and starring by James Franco. This movie tell story about Ned, an overprotective dad, visits his daughter at Stanford where he meets his biggest nightmare: her well-meaning but socially awkward Silicon Valley billionaire boyfriend, Laird. A rivalry develops and Ned’s panic level goes through the roof when he finds himself lost in this glamorous high-tech world and learns Laird is about to pop the question.

Streaming Full Movie Why Him? (2016) Online

Do not miss to Watch movie Why Him? (2016) Online for free with your family. only 2 step you can Watch or download this movie with high quality video. Come and join us! because very much movie can you watch free streaming.

Streaming Full Movie Why Him? (2016) Online

Incoming search term :

download full movie Why Him?, Why Him? 2016 English Episodes, Why Him? 2016 HD English Full Episodes Download, Watch Why Him? 2016 Online Free Putlocker, Why Him? 2016 Episodes Watch Online, Why Him? 2016 Watch Online, Why Him? 2016 English Full Episodes Free Download, movie Why Him? 2016, watch full movie Why Him? 2016, watch full Why Him? film online, Why Him? movie trailer, Why Him? 2016 Online Free Megashare, Why Him? 2016 movie streaming, Why Him? 2016 Full Episodes Online, watch film Why Him? 2016 now, Why Him? 2016 English Episode, Watch Why Him? 2016 Online Megashare, Why Him? 2016 HD Full Episodes Online, Why Him? 2016 For Free online, download film Why Him? now, watch full film Why Him? 2016 online, Watch Why Him? 2016 Online Free megashare, Why Him? 2016 For Free Online, live streaming film Why Him? online, Why Him? 2016 Episodes Online, Watch Why Him? 2016 Online Viooz, Watch Why Him? 2016 Online Free, streaming Why Him? movie, Why Him? 2016 English Episodes Free Watch Online, movie Why Him? 2016 trailer, Watch Why Him? 2016 Online Free Viooz, Why Him? 2016 English Full Episodes Watch Online, watch movie Why Him? now, Why Him? 2016 English Full Episodes Download, Why Him? 2016 Full Episodes Watch Online, watch Why Him? movie now, Why Him? live streaming film online, Why Him? 2016 English Full Episodes Online Free Download, Watch Why Him? 2016 Online Free putlocker, Why Him? 2016 Full Episode, Watch Why Him? 2016 Online Putlocker,

Yellowstone Supervolcano & Caldera

Yellowstone Supervolcano & Caldera ? Volcanic Eruptions & Seismic Activity ? Molten Rock, Magma Plume | Our Amazing Planet.

yellowstone-plume-110411-02.jpg

The volcanic plume of partly molten rock that feeds the Yellowstone supervolcano. Yellow and red indicate higher conductivity, green and blue indicate lower conductivity. Made by University of Utah geophysicists and computer scientists, this is the first large-scale ‘geoelectric’ image of the Yellowstone hotspot. Credit: University of Utah.

 

The gigantic underground plume of partly molten rock that feeds the Yellowstone supervolcano might be bigger than previously thought, a new image suggests.

The study says nothing about the chances of a cataclysmic eruption at Yellowstone, but it provides scientists with a valuable new perspective on the vast and deep reservoir of fiery material that feeds such eruptions, the last of which occurred more than 600,000 years ago. [Related: Infographic – The Geology of Yellowstone.]

Earlier measurements of the plume were produced by using seismic waves — the waves generated by earthquakes — to create a picture of the underground region. The new picture was produced by examining the Yellowstone plume’s electrical conductivity, which is generated by molten silicate rocks and hot briny water that is naturally present and mixed in with partly molten rock.

“It’s a totally new and different way of imaging and looking at the volcanic roots of Yellowstone,” said study co-author Robert B. Smith, professor emeritus and research professor of geophysics at the University of Utah, and a coordinating scientist of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory.

Ancient eruptions

Almost 17 million years ago, the deep plume of partly molten rock known as the Yellowstone hot spot first breached the surface in an eruption near what is now the Oregon-Idaho-Nevada border.

As North America drifted slowly southwest over the hot spot, there were more than 140 gargantuan caldera eruptions — the largest kind of eruption on Earth — along a northeast-trending path that is now Idaho’s Snake River Plain.

The hot spot finally reached Yellowstone about 2 million years ago, yielding three huge caldera eruptions about 2 million, 1.3 million and 642,000 years ago.

Two of the eruptions blanketed half of North America with volcanic ash, producing 2,500 times and 1,000 times more ash than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington state. Smaller eruptions occurred at Yellowstone in between the big blasts and as recently as 70,000 years ago.

Underground images

Smith said the geoelectric and seismic images of the Yellowstone plume look somewhat different because “we are imaging slightly different things.” Seismic images highlight materials such as molten or partly molten rock that slow seismic waves, while the geoelectric image is sensitive to briny fluids that conduct electricity.

Seismic images of the plume made by Smith in 2009 showed the plume of molten rock dips downward from Yellowstone at a 60-degree angle and extends 150 miles (240 kilometers) west-northwest to a point at least 410 miles (660 km) under the Montana-Idaho border — as far as seismic imaging could “see.”

The new electrical conductivity images show the conductive part of the plume dipping more gently, at an angle of perhaps 40 degrees to the west, and extending perhaps 400 miles (640 km) from east to west. The geoelectric image can “see” to a depth of only 200 miles (320 km).

The lesser tilt of the geoelectric plume image raises the possibility that the seismically imaged plume, shaped somewhat like a tilted tornado, may be enveloped by a broader, underground sheath of partly molten rock and liquids, Zhdanov and Smith say.

“It’s a bigger size” in the geoelectric picture, Smith said. “We can infer there are more fluids” than shown by seismic images. Despite differences, he said, “this body that conducts electricity is in about the same location with similar geometry as the seismically imaged Yellowstone plume.”

The new study has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union, which plans to publish it within the next few weeks.

Rapidly Inflating Volcano Creates Growing Mystery

Rapidly Inflating Volcano Creates Growing Mystery – Yahoo! News.

Yeah, just ’cause it’s growing a cubic meter per second, and it explodes every 300k years or so, and it’s been 300k years since the last one, no, there’s no reason to get excited, we don’t expect it to explode.

WTF??

Should anyone ever decide to make a show called “CSI: Geology,” a group of scientists studying a mysterious and rapidly inflating South American volcano have got the perfect storyline.

Researchers from several universities are essentially working as geological detectives, using a suite of tools to piece together the restive peak’s past in order to understand what it is doing now, and better diagnose what may lie ahead.

It’s a mystery they’ve yet to solve.

Uturuncu is a nearly 20,000-foot-high (6,000 meters) volcano in southwest Bolivia. Scientists recently discovered the volcano is inflating with astonishing speed.

“I call this ‘volcano forensics,’ because we’re using so many different techniques to understand this phenomenon,” said Oregon State University professor Shan de Silva, a volcanologist on the research team. [See images of the inflating volcano here.]

Researchers realized about five years ago that the area below and around Uturuncu is steadily rising — blowing up like a giant balloon under a wide disc of land some 43 miles (70 kilometers) across. Satellite data revealed the region was inflating by 1 to 2 centimeters (less than an inch) per year and had been doing so for at least 20 years, when satellite observations began.

“It’s one of the fastest uplifting volcanic areas on Earth,” de Silva told OurAmazingPlanet.”What we’re trying to do is understand why there is this rapid inflation, and from there we’ll try to understand what it’s going to lead to.”

The  peak is perched like a party hat at the center of the inflating area. “It’s very circular. It’s like a big bull’s-eye,” said Jonathan Perkins, a graduate student at the University of California, Santa Cruz, who recently presented work on the mountain at this year’s Geological Society of America meeting  in Minneapolis.

Scientists figured out from the inflation rate that the pocket of magma beneath the volcano was growing by about 27 cubic feet (1 cubic meter) per second.

“That’s about 10 times faster than the standard rate of magma chamber growth you see for large volcanic systems,” Perkins told OurAmazingPlanet.

However, no need to flee just yet, the scientists said.

“It’s not a volcano that we think is going to erupt at any moment, but it certainly is interesting, because the area was thought to be essentially dead,” de Silva said.

Uber-Uturuncu?

Uturuncu is surrounded by one of the most dense concentrations of supervolcanoes on the planet, all of which fell silent some 1 million years ago.

Supervolcanoes get their name because they erupt with such power that they typically spew out 1,000 times more material, in sheer volume, than a volcano like Mount St. Helens. Modern human civilization has never witnessed such an event. The planet’s most recent supervolcanic eruption happened about 74,000 years ago in Indonesia. [Related: The 10 Biggest Volcanic Eruptions in History]

“These eruptions are thought to have not only a local and regional impact, but potentially a global impact,” de Silva said.

Uturuncu itself is in the same class as Mount St. Helens in Washington state, but its aggressive rise could indicate that a new supervolcano is on the way. Or not.

De Silva said it appears that local volcanoes hoard magma for about 300,000 years before they blow — and Uturuncu last erupted about 300,000 years ago.

“So that’s why it’s important to know how long this has been going on,” he said.

To find an answer, scientists needed data that stretch back thousands of years — but they had only 20 years of satellite data.

Volcano rap sheet

“So that’s where we come in as geomorphologists — to look for clues in the landscape to learn about the long-term topographic evolution of the volcano,” Perkins said.

Perkins and colleagues used ancient lakes, now largely dry, along the volcano’s flanks to hunt for signs of rising action.

“Lakes are great, because waves from lakes will carve shorelines into bedrock, which make lines,” Perkins said.

If the angle of those lines shifted over thousands of years  — if the summit of the mountain rose, it would gradually lift one side of the lake — it would indicate the peak had been rising for quite some time, or at least provide a better idea of when the movement began.

The local conditions, largely untouched by erosion or the reach of lush plant and animal life, lend themselves to geological detective work, Perkins noted.

“It’s a really sparse, otherworldly landscape,” Perkins said. “Everything is so well preserved. There’s no biology to get in the way of your observations.”

Perkins said that surveys conducted on the lakes last autumn didn’t indicate long-term inflation. However, tilting lakes are only one indicator of volcano growth, he said.

De Silva said the geological detective team is working to combine data from a number of sources — seismic data, GPS data, even minute variations in gravity — to pin down when and why the mountain awoke from its 300,000-year-long slumber, and better predict its next big move.

This story was provided by OurAmazingPlanet, a sister site to LiveScience. You can follow OurAmazingPlanet staff writer Andrea Mustain on Twitter: @andreamustain. Follow OurAmazingPlanet for the latest in Earth science and exploration news on Twitter @OAPlanet and on Facebook.

Rapidly Inflating Volcano Creates Growing Mystery

Rapidly Inflating Volcano Creates Growing Mystery – Yahoo! News.

Should anyone ever decide to make a show called “CSI: Geology,” a group of scientists studying a mysterious and rapidly inflating South American volcano have got the perfect storyline.

Researchers from several universities are essentially working as geological detectives, using a suite of tools to piece together the restive peak’s past in order to understand what it is doing now, and better diagnose what may lie ahead.

It’s a mystery they’ve yet to solve.

Uturuncu is a nearly 20,000-foot-high (6,000 meters) volcano in southwest Bolivia. Scientists recently discovered the volcano is inflating with astonishing speed.

“I call this ‘volcano forensics,’ because we’re using so many different techniques to understand this phenomenon,” said Oregon State University professor Shan de Silva, a volcanologist on the research team. [See images of the inflating volcano here.]

Researchers realized about five years ago that the area below and around Uturuncu is steadily rising — blowing up like a giant balloon under a wide disc of land some 43 miles (70 kilometers) across. Satellite data revealed the region was inflating by 1 to 2 centimeters (less than an inch) per year and had been doing so for at least 20 years, when satellite observations began.

“It’s one of the fastest uplifting volcanic areas on Earth,” de Silva told OurAmazingPlanet.”What we’re trying to do is understand why there is this rapid inflation, and from there we’ll try to understand what it’s going to lead to.”

The  peak is perched like a party hat at the center of the inflating area. “It’s very circular. It’s like a big bull’s-eye,” said Jonathan Perkins, a graduate student at the University of California, Santa Cruz, who recently presented work on the mountain at this year’s Geological Society of America meeting  in Minneapolis.

Scientists figured out from the inflation rate that the pocket of magma beneath the volcano was growing by about 27 cubic feet (1 cubic meter) per second.

“That’s about 10 times faster than the standard rate of magma chamber growth you see for large volcanic systems,” Perkins told OurAmazingPlanet.

However, no need to flee just yet, the scientists said.

“It’s not a volcano that we think is going to erupt at any moment, but it certainly is interesting, because the area was thought to be essentially dead,” de Silva said.

Uber-Uturuncu?

Uturuncu is surrounded by one of the most dense concentrations of supervolcanoes on the planet, all of which fell silent some 1 million years ago.

Supervolcanoes get their name because they erupt with such power that they typically spew out 1,000 times more material, in sheer volume, than a volcano like Mount St. Helens. Modern human civilization has never witnessed such an event. The planet’s most recent supervolcanic eruption happened about 74,000 years ago in Indonesia. [Related: The 10 Biggest Volcanic Eruptions in History]

“These eruptions are thought to have not only a local and regional impact, but potentially a global impact,” de Silva said.

Uturuncu itself is in the same class as Mount St. Helens in Washington state, but its aggressive rise could indicate that a new supervolcano is on the way. Or not.

De Silva said it appears that local volcanoes hoard magma for about 300,000 years before they blow — and Uturuncu last erupted about 300,000 years ago.

“So that’s why it’s important to know how long this has been going on,” he said.

To find an answer, scientists needed data that stretch back thousands of years — but they had only 20 years of satellite data.

Volcano rap sheet

“So that’s where we come in as geomorphologists — to look for clues in the landscape to learn about the long-term topographic evolution of the volcano,” Perkins said.

Perkins and colleagues used ancient lakes, now largely dry, along the volcano’s flanks to hunt for signs of rising action.

“Lakes are great, because waves from lakes will carve shorelines into bedrock, which make lines,” Perkins said.

If the angle of those lines shifted over thousands of years  — if the summit of the mountain rose, it would gradually lift one side of the lake — it would indicate the peak had been rising for quite some time, or at least provide a better idea of when the movement began.

The local conditions, largely untouched by erosion or the reach of lush plant and animal life, lend themselves to geological detective work, Perkins noted.

“It’s a really sparse, otherworldly landscape,” Perkins said. “Everything is so well preserved. There’s no biology to get in the way of your observations.”

Perkins said that surveys conducted on the lakes last autumn didn’t indicate long-term inflation. However, tilting lakes are only one indicator of volcano growth, he said.

De Silva said the geological detective team is working to combine data from a number of sources — seismic data, GPS data, even minute variations in gravity — to pin down when and why the mountain awoke from its 300,000-year-long slumber, and better predict its next big move.

Earth's time bombs may have killed the dinosaurs

Earth’s time bombs may have killed the dinosaurs – environment – 27 July 2011 – New Scientist.

THE fate of the dinosaurs may have been sealed half a billion years before life even appeared, by two geological time bombs that still lurk near our planet’s core.

A controversial new hypothesis links massive eruptions of lava that coincided with many of Earth’s largest extinctions to two unusually hot blobs of mantle 2800 kilometres beneath the crust. The blobs formed just after the Earth itself, 4.5 billion years ago. If the hypothesis is correct, they have sporadically burst through the planet’s crust, creating enormous oceans of lava which poisoned the atmosphere and wiped out entire branches of the tree of life.

Debates still rage over what caused different mass extinctions, including the one that wiped out the dinosaurs. An asteroid that smashed into Earth 65 million years ago is no doubt partially to blame for the Cretaceous giants’ demise. But a less-known school of thought has it that this and other extinctions occurred when cracks in the crust let huge amounts of lava gush from the bowels of the Earth. Each event flooded at least 100,000 square kilometres, leaving behind distinct geological regions known as large igneous provinces (LIPs), such as India’s Deccan traps, formed when the dinosaurs went extinct (see map). “There is an amazing correlation between mass extinctions and LIPs,” says Andrew Kerr at the University of Cardiff, UK.

Now Matthew Jackson at Boston University, and colleagues, claim to have found evidence that LIPs are fed by 4.5-billion-year-old stores of mantle.

Most of the mantle has been modified by plate tectonics since then (see “Diamonds and the birth of plate tectonics”). But last year Jackson’s team found that 62-million-year-old basalts from the North Atlantic LIP contain isotopes of helium, hafnium and lead in ratios that reflect the chemistry of early Earth’s mantle.

They have now found similar lead isotope ratios in other LIP rocks, and say that LIPs in general may have an ancient source. Their analysis suggests this mantle contains an abundance of radioactive, heat-producing elements, making it unusually hot and potentially more likely to form the large quantities of lava needed to create LIPs (Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature10326).

The ancient stores might still exist. Studies to probe the mantle’s structure with seismic waves have revealed two unusual areas some 2800 kilometres down, beneath Africa and the Pacific Ocean. Trond Torsvik of the University of Oslo, Norway, and colleagues recently showed that most LIPs formed while one of these two areas lay directly beneath them.

“It’s an interesting idea – that a giant blob of hot magma might burp from near Earth’s core every now and then, causing havoc for life,” says Gerta Keller at Princeton University, but adds more work is needed to support the hypothesis.

Kerr agrees: “This will be controversial – it flies in the face of much of the research from the last 30 years.” Conventional wisdom, he points out, suggests LIPs have a more prosaic source – young mantle formed when oceanic crust returns to the mantle through subduction.

But Torsvik is enthused. Having spent 10 years collecting evidence that his two mantle blobs have been stable for at least 540 million years, the idea that they contain primordial mantle is “like music to my ears”, he says.

Diamonds and the birth of plate tectonics

The inside of our planet is a magma-churning power house. As a result, very little remains from the millennia just after Earth formed. The two blobs of ancient magma that may be responsible for several mass extinctions are an exception.

Some diamonds, it turns out, may also serve as time capsules. A new study suggests that locked inside them is the secret of when the continents formed.

We knew that plate tectonics have been pushing new bits of crust into existence and engulfing old chunks back into the mantle for hundreds of millions of years. What we didn’t know is when it all started. Stephen Richardson at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and Steven Shirey of the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington DC collected thousands of ancient diamonds from around the world. Gems considered to be flawed by the jewellery industry can contain tiny clumps of minerals from the rocks in which they formed. Some clumps are made of peridotite, others of the rarer eclogite, which is only formed when volcanic rocks from the surface are forced deep into the mantle and crushed in the immense pressure and heat there. To get eclogite, you need plate tectonics.

When Richardson and Shirey dated the mineral clumps, they found that the peridotite ranged from 2 to 3.5 billion years old, but the oldest eclogite was 3 billion years old (Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.1206275). This, say the researchers, proves that plate tectonics cannot have been active before then. Michael Marshall

Yellowstone Hot Spot Shreds Ancient Pacific Ocean

Yellowstone Hot Spot Shreds Ancient Pacific Ocean : Discovery News.

Analysis by Michael Reilly
Thu Sep 2, 2010 05:15 PM ET
3 Comments | Leave a Comment

If you thought the geysers and overblown threat of a supervolcanic eruption in Yellowstone National Park were dramatic, you ain’t seen nothing: deep beneath Earth’s surface, the hot spot that feeds the park has torn an entire tectonic plate in half.

The revelation comes from a new study in the journal Geophysical Research Letters that peered into the mantle beneath the Pacific Northwest to see what happens when ancient ocean crust from the Pacific Ocean runs headlong into a churning plume of ultra-hot mantle material.

Geologically speaking, the Pacific Northwest is a peculiar place. Hot spots usually sit way out on their own in the middle of a tectonic plate (think Hawaii or the Galapagos). Not Yellowstone — it pokes its way to the surface just a few hundred miles from the edge of the North America plate, where a giant trench sends the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate sliding underneath Washington, Oregon, and northern California.

YellowstoneHotspot

Peering into the middle of this tectonic traffic jam is a tricky business. So scientists, led by Mathias Obrebski of the University of California, Berkeley, had to build an image from seismic waves bouncing around inside the mantle. What they found was a subterranean world filled with violence.

The original data figures are a little hard to look at, but the team built a cartoon representation of what they think is going on down there. Around 19 million years ago, the Yellowstone hot spot first ascended from deep within the mantle. As it neared the surface, it ran into the subducting Juan de Fuca plate.

YellowstoneSlab2 But the Juan de Fuca plate was itself young at the time (there’s a mid-ocean ridge just off the coast of Oregon that forms brand new crust to this day), so it hadn’t had the chance fully harden yet. When the crust and hot spot met, the hot mantle plume to found a weakness in the plate — perhaps a pre-existing fracture — and punched a giant hole through it.

So, who cares? The encounter has had several amazing consequences. First, and most obvious, it resurfaced much of northern Nevada, Idaho, and Wyoming over the last several million years in basalt through a series of massive volcanic eruptions. Then there were the tremendous supervolcanic explosions, which coated much of the western U.S. in thick blankets of ash and made the Yellowstone park region what it is today.

Second, the team points out that the rise of the Yellowstone plume also coincided with a large change in the rate at which the crust of the Pacific Ocean dives beneath North America. It’s possible that the shattered underlying plate simply didn’t pull as much weight anymore, and the subduction zone slowed down.

It’s a new chapter in what we know about Yellowstone’s legendary power to change the landscape. Not only did its massive eruptions coat North America in ash from Idaho to the Mississippi River, and south almost to the Gulf of Mexico, but its deep plume sent a ripple effect through the very roots of the continent and the Pacific Ocean that fundamentally altered the coastline of the Pacific Northwest.