Tag Archives: security

'disturbing' levels of cyber-raids

Top GCHQ spook warns of ‘disturbing’ levels of cyber-raids • The Register.

With a crunch conference on government cyber-security starting tomorrow, the director of government spook den GCHQ, Iain Lobban, said Britain had faced a “disturbing” number of digital attacks in recent months.

Attackers had targeted citizens’ data, credit card numbers and industry secrets, Lobban said.

“I can attest to attempts to steal British ideas and designs – in the IT, technology, defence, engineering and energy sectors as well as other industries – to gain commercial advantage or to profit from secret knowledge of contractual arrangements,” the eavesdropping boss added in his article for The Times.

According to Foreign Secretary William Hague there were more than 600 “malicious” attacks on government systems every day, while criminals could snap up Brits’ stolen card details online for just 70 pence a throw.

The statement was paired with the announcement of a £650m investment in cyber-security over the next four years, with both Hague and Lobbman arguing that industry and government need to work together to pull off a safe, resilient system.

Countries that could not protect their banking systems and intellectual property will be at a serious disadvantage in future, Hague told The Times.

The government could have its work cut out, though: security software maker Symantec today suggests that businesses are cutting back on cyber-security and are less aware of and engaged with the big threats than they were last year. Symantec was specifically staring at industries integral to national security.

It found that only 82 percent of them participated in government protection programmes, down 18 points since last year.

Symantec reckoned that reduced manpower meant companies had less time to focus on big structural threats.

“The findings of this survey are somewhat alarming, given recent attacks like Nitro and Duqu that have targeted critical infrastructure providers,” said Dean Turner, a director at Symantec.

“Having said that, limitations on manpower and resources as mentioned by respondents help explain why critical infrastructure providers have had to prioritise and focus their efforts on more day-to-day cyber threats.” ®

Post-9/11 U.S. intelligence reforms take root but problems remain

Post-9/11 U.S. intelligence reforms take root, problems remain | Reuters.

(Reuters) – U.S. intelligence agencies will forever be scarred by their failure to connect the dots and detect the September 11 plot, but a decade later efforts to break down barriers to information-sharing are taking root.

Changing a culture of “need-to-know” to “need-to-share” does not come easily in spy circles. Some officials say they worry, a decade later, about a future attack in which it turns out that U.S. spy agencies had clues in their vast vaults of data but did not put them together, or even know they existed.

Yet significant changes, both big and small, have broken down barriers between agencies, smoothed information-sharing and improved coordination, U.S. intelligence experts say.

From issuing a blue badge to everyone working in the sprawling intelligence community to symbolize a common identity, to larger moves of mixing employees from different agencies, the goal is singular — to prevent another attack.

“We’re much further ahead,” David Shedd, Defense Intelligence Agency deputy director, said of the ability to connect the dots compared with 10 years ago. Still, signs of a plot to attack the United States could be missed again.

“My worst fear, and I suspect probably one that would come true, is that in any future would-be or actual attack, God forbid, we will be able to find the dots again somewhere because of simply how much data is collected,” Shedd said.

The political response to the failure to stop the attack was the 2002 creation of the Department of Homeland Security, pulling together 22 agencies to form the third largest U.S. Cabinet department behind the Pentagon and Veterans Affairs.

That was followed by the creation in late 2004 of the Director of National Intelligence to oversee all the spy agencies, as recommended by the bipartisan 9/11 commission.

Previously, the CIA director held a dual role of also overseeing the multitude of intelligence agencies. But in the aftermath of the 2001 attacks, policymakers decided that was too big of a job for one person to do effectively.


Critics argued then and now that the reforms were the government’s usual response to crises — create more bureaucracy. But others see much-needed change.

“It has been a tremendous improvement,” said Lee Hamilton, who was the 9/11 commission vice chair. “It’s not seamless, there are problems, and we’ve still got a ways to go.”

The 2001 attacks involving airliners hijacked by al Qaeda operatives killed nearly 3,000 people in New York, Pennsylvania and the Pentagon. Various U.S. intelligence and law enforcement agencies had come across bits of information suggesting an impending attack but failed to put the pieces together.

The CIA had information about three of the 19 hijackers at least 20 months before the attacks; the National Security Agency had information linking one of the hijackers with al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden’s network; the CIA knew one hijacker had entered the United States but did not tell the FBI; and an FBI agent warned of suspicious Middle Eastern men taking flying lessons.

Have the reforms made America safer? Officials say yes, and point to the U.S. operation that killed bin Laden in Pakistan in May that demanded coordination among intelligence agencies and the military. But there is an inevitable caveat: no one can guarantee there will never be another attack on U.S. soil.

On Christmas Day 2009, a Nigerian man linked to an al Qaeda off-shoot tried unsuccessfully to light explosives sewn into his underwear on a flight to Detroit from Amsterdam. It turned out U.S. authorities had pockets of information about him.

President Barack Obama used a familiar September 11 phrase to describe the 2009 incident as “a failure to connect the dots of intelligence that existed across our intelligence community.”

Roger Cressey, a former White House National Security Council counterterrorism official, resurrected another September 11 phrase: “It was a failure of imagination.”

The intelligence community had not seen al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, a Yemen-based al Qaeda off-shoot, as capable of striking the U.S. homeland. If the “underwear bomber” threat had originated in Pakistan “they would have gone to battle stations immediately,” Cressey said.

Some proposed changes in how authorities would respond to another successful attack still are pending. For example, creation of a common communication system for police, firefighters and other emergency personnel remains tangled up in political wrangling in Congress over how to implement it.

“This is a no-brainer,” Hamilton said. “The first responders at the scene of a disaster ought to be able to talk with one another. They cannot do it today in most jurisdictions.”

Former leaders of the 9/11 commission issued a report card saying nine of its 41 recommendations remain unfinished.


The Office of the Director of National Intelligence has experienced growing pains as overseer of the 17 spy agencies, churning through four chiefs in six years.

Tensions over turf, confusion about the DNI’s role, and problems herding agencies with very powerful chiefs of their own all came to a crescendo when retired Admiral Dennis Blair, the third DNI, tried to assert authority over CIA station chiefs, who represent the agency in different countries.

“The position of chief of station is one of the crown jewels of the CIA, and they don’t want anyone playing with their crown jewels,” said Mark Lowenthal, a former senior U.S. intelligence official.

After a dust-up with CIA Director Leon Panetta, who now is defense secretary, it was Blair who was sent packing.

“I think the mistake that some have made is to have viewed the DNI and the Director of CIA as an either/or proposition rather than the power of the two working together,” the DIA’s Shedd said in an interview in his office.

“There is a history of where that hasn’t worked so well, I believe it is working much better today,” said Shedd, who has worked at the DNI, CIA and National Security Council.

Intelligence experts say in the current administration, Obama’s top homeland security and counterterrorism adviser John Brennan arguably has more power than any of them because he has the president’s ear. It’s a reminder that, bureaucratic reform or no, personalities count in making national security policy.

The improved sharing of secret data has led to yet another set of problems. The deluge of bits and bytes has subjected intelligence analysts to information overload as they try to sift through it all for relevant pieces.

“Our analysts still are spending way too much time on finding the information rather than on the analysis of the information,” Shedd said. “There is just too much data to go find it all.”

The intelligence community wants a system developed that would automatically process information from multiple agencies and then make the connections for the analysts.

But greater inroads into sharing data across agencies does not guarantee that another attack will be averted.

The threat has evolved and officials now are increasingly concerned about a “lone wolf” plot by an individual, not tied to any militant group, that may be more difficult to uncover.

“Those threats will not come to our attention because of an intelligence community intercept,” said John Cohen, a senior Department of Homeland Security counterterrorism official.

“They will come to our attention because of an alert police officer, an alert deputy sheriff, an alert store owner, an alert member of the public sees something that is suspicious and reports it,” Cohen said.

One measure of the success of post-9/11 reforms is that a decade later the United States has not had a similar attack.

“Now that could be luck, that could be skill, we don’t really know,” Hamilton said. “But in all likelihood what we have done, including the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security and the transformation in intelligence and FBI, has certainly been helpful.”

(Editing by Warren Strobel and Will Dunham)

NATO site hacked

NATO site hacked • The Register.

Bookshop opened

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NATO is warning subscribers to its e-Bookshop service that hackers have likely stolen its customer database.

The site is run as a separate service for distributing NATO information and does not contain any classified or secret information.

The bookshop has been closed and all members been warned by email to change their passwords if they are using them for other websites or services.

The email said: “Our examinations show a possible compromise of user information (username, password, address and email address) for people who have ordered publications from the e-Bookshop or subscribed to our email service.

“If you use the same email and password on other web platforms it is highly recommended that you change your passwords.”

NATO members were warned last month of increasing threats from hackivist group Anonymous. Looks like their advice was right.

The organisation is beginning to take cyber-threats more seriously – late last year it designated cyber-defence as a critical capability.

There is no clue so far as to who is behind the attack. The organisation has been hit before, and has no shortage of enemies.

Meanwhile LulzSec released a bunch of documents purloined from Arizona Police.

NATO’s data breach statement is here. ®

Security Breach Roundup, June 2011

Travelodge still doesn’t know who hacked it • The Register.

Travelodge still doesn’t know who hacked it

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Travelodge is still trying to find out who got into their customer database and snaffled names and email addresses.

The budget chain told the Reg it has asked outside contractors to go through its systems to try and find the culprits.

A spokeswoman said:

In the last 24 hours, we have been conducting a comprehensive investigation to find out why a small group of our customers have received a spam email from a third party to their registered email address.   Investigative specialist experts in this field have been working around the clock to methodically eliminate the possible areas of concern. Our current findings have revealed that a small proportion of data contained on one of our marketing databases may have been compromised. This data related to customers names and email addresses only, which has been used for the spam email.We can further confirm no financial data has been stolen, accessed or compromised.

The breach first emerged on Thursday when customers started getting spam emails to addresses which had only been given to the hotel chain.

The Information Commissioner’s Office is investigating but stressed that hacking was primarily a matter for the police – provided Travelodge was taking proper care of the data of course. ®


Web Host Down Under Goes TitsUp After Hackage

Industry rallies following crippling online strike

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Distressed domain hosting outfit Distribute.IT and its offshoot Click n Go have been acquired by larger competitor the Netregistry Group after a systematic hack attack brought down the company’s operations.

Neither party have disclosed the sale price or customer numbers but it is clear Distribute.IT’s priority was to ensure continuity of service after the hack crippled its network last week.

All of Distribute.IT’s customer base will be given the option of moving their services to the Netregistry Group.

Netregistry Group CEO Larry Bloch said:

We all have a great deal of sympathy and concern for the consequences to Distribute.IT staff, management and customers of this unfortunate incident. It is important to us that all Distribute.IT customers know the extent of effort to which Distribute IT have gone to rectify the damage. Distribute.IT had a very solid reputation – that comes from doing a good job for a long time. I want to remind customers of that excellence and ask for their patience and support as we work through the requirements to return services to all customers as rapidly as possible.

Bloch told customers that NetRegistry would honour all payments for hosting at Distribute.IT, but said that while it was assessing billing and payment history, it would give all Distribute.IT customers a free hosting service “as soon as humanly possible” so that they could upload their site and get their email addresses working.

The transaction is supported by domain administration agency auDA, which has been working closely with Distribute.IT management and NetRegistry through the saga.

The sale was quickly negotiated on Thursday morning. Up until late Wednesday night the Distribute.IT team was working with supporting companies such as data centre Micron21 to assist in migrating co-location clients to their facilities.

In an email to customers on Tuesday Distribute.IT support said:

All attempts to manage and stabilize the network and the storage have resulted in our security and network teams identifying further vulnerabilities in the configuration. This has resulted in the various lockouts of ports and loss of accessibility that you have experienced recently. In this climate of uncertainty, we would strongly recommend that you make preparations to migrate and transfer your requirements to another hosting/co-location provider.

Distribute.IT recommended to clients that they move to Micron21 for continuity or resumption of services for co-location, website and email hosting.

Micron21 James Braunegg said that Distribute.IT had worked “tirelessly” for its customers. “They have done the industry proud in coming back from a crisis and we are excited to be part of the recovery effort,” he said.

Braunegg also said that Micron21 may hire some of Distribute.IT’s staff, as it is currently recruiting.

auDA confirmed that Distribute.IT had advised the organisation that its hosting services, and not its domain name services, were the target of the attack.

“Distribute.IT has also advised auDA that it does not store any credit card data in its databases or logs, and so there has been no compromise to customers’ financial data. auDA can also confirm that .au registry data has not been compromised as a result of the security attacks on Distribute IT,” it said. ®


Web authentication authority suffers security breach

Counterfeit certificates sought for high-profile sites

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Yet another web authentication authority has been attacked by hackers intent on minting counterfeit certificates that would allow them to spoof the authenticated pages of high-profile sites.

Israel-based StartCom, which operates StartSSL suffered a security breach that occurred last Wednesday, the company said in a tersely worded advisory. The certificate authority, which is trusted by the Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, and Mozilla Firefox browsers to vouch for the authenticity of sensitive websites, has suspended issuance of digital certificates and related services until further notice.

Eddy Nigg, StartCom’s CTO and COO, told The Register that the attackers targeted many of the same websites targeted during a similar breach in March against certificate authority Comodo. The hackers in the earlier attack managed to forge certificates for seven addresses, including Google mail, www.google.com, login.yahoo.com, login.skype.com, addons.mozilla.com, and Microsoft’s login.live.com.

The earlier breach touched off a frantic effort by the world’s biggest browser makers to blacklist the counterfeit credentials before the hackers could use them to create spoof websites that contained a valid cryptographic stamp validating the sites’ authenticity. It took more than a week for the fraudulent credentials to be blocked in all browsers, and even then, many widely used email programs still weren’t updated.

The hackers behind the attack on StartCom failed to obtain any certificates that would allow them to spoof websites in a similar fashion, and they were also unsuccessful in generating an intermediate certificate that would allow them to act as their own certificate authority, Nigg said in an email. The private encryption key at the heart of the company’s operations isn’t stored on a computer that’s attached to the internet, so they didn’t get their hands on that sensitive document, either, he said.

Last week’s attack is at least the fifth time an entity that issues SSL, or secure sockets layer, certificates has been targeted. In all, four of Comodo’s resellers have suffered security breaches in the past three months.

The susceptibility of CAs to hackers represents one of the many significant vulnerabilities of the SSL system, which serves as the internet’s foundation of trust. Once a CA’s root certificate is included with a browser, it can be responsible for validating tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of individual websites. That makes it impractical to remove the root certificate even if there is good reason to be wary of it.

Nigg declined to state how many certificates StartSSL has issued during its tenure, but he did say it is among the top 10 issuers. It is unclear when the CA will resume services. ®


And an old one that I missed before:

Teenage Girl Helps Anonymous Take Down Security Firm

HBGary’s nemesis is a ’16-year-old schoolgirl’

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Tales of mystery and imagination

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Forbes has bagged an interview with the “teenage girl” who supposedly played a key role in hacking security firm HBGary on behalf of Anonymous.

HBGary Federal earned the enmity of the loosely knit hacker collective by threatening to expose its membership at the B-Sides security conference last month. The security consultancy unwisely publicised the planned move, which followed weeks after members of Anonymous brought down the websites of MasterCard and PayPal in an act of cyber-solidarity/vandalism (take your pick) and in support of WikiLeaks.

However before HBGary execs had the opportunity to spill the beans, Anonymous turned the tables on the small security consultancy, using a variety of website exploits and social engineering tricks to deface its website and extract HBGary’s email database, which Anonymous then released as a torrent.

These files contained all sort of embarrassing snippets, including a pitch by HBGary to run a dirty tricks campaign against WikiLeaks on behalf of the Bank of America. Worse still, the files inadvertently revealed one of HBGary’s clients – Morgan Stanley – to be a victim of the Operation Aurora attacks in 2009.

The whole episode was hugely amusing, if you weren’t involved, and high profile enough for Stephen Colbert to devote a segment of the Colbert Report show to the hack in late January. Soon afterward, HBGary Federal chief exec Aaron Barr resigned in order to draw a line under the whole unfortunate business. Colbert described Barr as a victim of the “global hacker nerd brigade”.

A key part of the hack against HBGary involved the impersonation of Barr in an exchange of emails with an IT administrator (Nokia security specialist Jussi Jaakonaho) in order to gain access to HBGary’s servers. The hacker, who used social engineering trickery to persuade Jaakonaho to drop security defences and allow in-bound connections, has since identified herself as a 16-year-old girl called Kayla in an interview with Forbes.

Kayla supposedly got into computers at the age of around 14, chiefly because her father is a software engineer. She told Forbes that she had learned the basics quickly and soon began to take an interest in computer security, which led her towards learning how to hack databases. Kayla said she then went on to hack the content management system on 4chan’s notorious /b/ channel, the web home of weird smut.

The “youngster” supposedly began hanging around this forum, the birthplace of Anonymous, before joining in on web attacks supported by the free-wheeling group. She told Forbes that her dad knows about her activities and though he “disapproves”, he hasn’t “done anything about it”.

This sounds implausible and the supposed teenager’s refusal to talk to Forbes via Skype also appears shifty. Anonymous vouches for Kayla, which is hardly convincing because the group is notorious for pranks almost as much as anything else.

“Kayla” is concerned that the authorities might catch up to her, even though she takes various precautions.

“Each night she wipes every one of her web accounts and deletes every email in her inbox,” Forbes reports. “She has no physical hard drive and boots her computer from a microSD card,” it adds.

Forbes is careful to put caveats into its story, which makes an interesting yarn if nothing else. As one point the Forbes reporter put it to her interviewee that she is in fact a mid-20s “male from New Jersey named Corey Barnhill” (AKA Xyrix). Not a bit of it, claimed Kayla, I am Xyrix.

Of course you are. How could anyone think differently? ®





Hackers pierce network with killer mouse

Hackers pierce network with jerry-rigged mouse • The Register.

Mission Impossible meets Logitech

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When hackers from penetration testing firm Netragard were hired to pierce the firewall of a customer, they knew they had their work cut out. The client specifically ruled out the use of social networks, telephones, and other social-engineering vectors, and gaining unauthorized physical access to computers was also off limits.

Deprived of the low-hanging fruit attackers typically rely on to get a toe-hold onto their target, Netragard CTO Adriel Desautels borrowed a technique straight out of a plot from Mission Impossible: He modified a popular, off-the-shelf computer mouse to include a flash drive and a powerful microcontroller that ran custom attack code that compromised whatever computer connected to it.

For the attack to work, the booby-trapped USB Logitech mouse had to look and behave precisely the same as a normal device. But it also needed to include secret capabilities that allowed the mouse to do things no user would ever dream possible.

“The microcontroller acts as if there’s a person sitting at the keyboard typing,” Desautels told The Reg. “When a certain set of conditions are met, the microcontroller sends commands to the computer as if somebody was typing those commands in on the keyboard or the mouse.”

Interior view of modifified Logitech mouseInterior view of Logitech mouse modified by penetration testers. Picture supplied by Netragard

The Teensy microcontroller programmed by the Netragard hackers was programmed to wait 60 seconds after being plugged in to a computer and then enter commands into its keyboard that executed malware stored on the custom-built flash drive snuck into the guts of the Logitech mouse. To squelch warnings from McAfee antivirus, which was protecting the customer’s PCs, the microcontroller contained undocumented exploit code that subverted the program’s dialogue boxes to evade detection.

Desautels said he chose the highly involved method after deciding against a simpler attack that relied only on a USB drive and functionality in Windows that automatically executes its contents when its connected to the computer. As previously reported, malware infections that exploit the widely abused Autorun feature plummeted in the past few months as Microsoft has made it easier for customers to turn it off.

The modified mouse wasn’t hemmed in by the change because it didn’t rely on Autorun for the malicious code to be executed. The programmable microcontroller, in effect, acted as its own rogue agent that was under the control of the Netragard penetration testers who had programmed it. Because the the attack code is executed by the mini computer on the Teensy card, the technique can work against a variety of operating systems, not just Windows. What’s more, no drivers are needed.

“You’re plugging in a computer device, in either a keyboard or a mouse, that has a mind of its own,” Desautels explained. “There’s no defense, either. Plug one of these in and you’re basically screwed.”

To get someone from the target company to use the mouse, Netragard purchased a readily available list names and other data of its employees. After identifying a worker who looked especially promising, they shipped him the modified mouse, which they put back in its original packaging and added marketing materials so the shipment would look like it was part of a promotional event.

Three days later, the malware contained on the mouse connected to a server controlled by Netragard. Much of the malware used in the attack was first dreamed up by security researcher Adrien Crenshaw. Netragard’s detailed description of the attack comes as the US Department of Homeland Security released results from a recent test that showed 60 percent of employees who picked up foreign computer discs and USB thumb drives in the parking lots of government buildings and private contractors connected them to their computers. ®

This post was updated to include details about the DHS study.

Citi: Last month's credit card hack attack stole millions

Citi: Last month’s credit card hack attack stole millions – Jun. 27, 2011.

Citi: Last month's credit card hack attack stole millions

NEW YORK (CNNMoney) — Citigroup acknowledged that a hack attack last month stole millions of dollars from customers’ credit card accounts.

Citigroup (C, Fortune 500) told CNN that about $2.7 million was stolen from about 3,400 accounts on May 10.

The hackers actually accessed a much larger number of accounts: 360,083. Fewer than 1% of the hacked accounts had money removed from them, according to Citigroup.

The bank reiterated that customers will not be responsible from financial losses stemming from the attacks.

“Customers are not liable for any fraud on the accounts and are 100% protected,” the bank said.

EA’s BioWare unit hacked

Citigroup announced on June 16 that more than 200,000 new credit cards had been issued to hacked customers. In some cases, customers had already closed their account or had received a new credit card, so they didn’t need the Citi-initiated replacement.

Citigroup waited until June 3, more than three weeks after its discovery of the hack, to start sending out notification letters. However, the company insisted that it acted quickly to deal with the security problem

“From the moment Citi discovered the breach, we took immediate action to rectify the situation and protect any customers potentially at risk,” Citi said in a written statement earlier this month.

There has been a spate of recent, high-profile security breaches. Video game maker Electronic Arts (EA) said Friday that hackers recently breached a server linked to a message board, stealing customer information.

Sony (SNE) was subjected to major hacks in April and May, affecting several of its gaming systems and potentially compromising tens of millions of credit card numbers.

In a separate case, hackers used SecurIDs — the tokens used by office workers to access corporate systems — to launch cyber attacks against Lockheed Martin (LMT, Fortune 500). The maker of the tokens, RSA Security, a division of EMC Corp., (EMC, Fortune 500) offered to replace or monitor all SecurIDs.

Bank of America (BAC, Fortune 500) employees and some clients use the tokens. The banks said they will be replaced.

Climate change threatens global security, warn medical and military leaders

Climate change threatens global security, warn medical and military leaders.

ScienceDaily (Apr. 5, 2011) — Medical and military leaders have come together to warn that climate change not only spells a global health catastrophe, but also threatens global stability and security.

“Climate change poses an immediate and grave threat, driving ill-health and increasing the risk of conflict, such that each feeds upon the other,” they write in an editorial published on the British Medical Journal website. Their views come ahead of an open meeting on these issues to be held at the British Medical Association on 20 June 2011.

The authors point to several reports, highlighting the threat that climate change poses to “collective security and global order.”

For example, the Pentagon’s 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review to Congress stressed the potential for climate change to contribute to “poverty, environmental degradation, and the further weakening of fragile governments.”

The UK’s Ministry of Defence also states that “climate change will amplify existing social, political and resource stresses” and will shift “the tipping point at which conflict ignites,” while the UK’s Foreign Secretary, William Hague, recently described climate change as “perhaps the 21st century’s biggest foreign policy challenge.”

A recent report by the International Institute for Strategic Studies concurs: “Climate change will increase the risks of resource shortages, mass migration, and civil conflict. These could lead to failed states, which threaten global stability and security.” It stresses the need for “sustained investment in infrastructure and new technologies” of which “a shift to renewable energy sources will be the most visible effect of efforts to mitigate emissions.”

“It might be considered unusual for the medical and military professions to concur,” say the authors. “But on this subject we do.”

They conclude: “Although discussion is good, we can no longer delay implementing tough action that will make a difference, while quibbling over minor uncertainties in climate modelling. Unlike most recent natural disasters, this one is entirely predictable. Doctors, often seen as authoritative, trusted, and independent by their communities, must make their voices heard in calling for such action.”

Such subjects will be discussed at a forthcoming open meeting “Climate change — how to secure our future wellbeing: a health and security perspective” to be held at BMA House on 20 June 2011.

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Story Source:

The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by BMJ-British Medical Journal, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Journal Reference:

  1. L. Jarvis, H. Montgomery, N. Morisetti, I. Gilmore. Climate change, ill health, and conflict. BMJ, 2011; 342 (apr05 1): d1819 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.d1819