Eruption News and Volcanoes From Space for October 28, 2011 | Wired Science | Wired.com

Vulcan’s View: Eruption News and Volcanoes From Space for October 28, 2011 | Wired Science | Wired.com.

Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile

 

New Smithsonian/USGS Global Volcanism Program Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, new views of volcanoes from space!

Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile

The eruption at Chile’s Puyehue-Cordón Caulle continues after starting in early June of this year. The current plume is much smaller than during the opening phases of the eruption, topping out at ~4.5 km (some as high as 7.5 km). However, high atmospheric winds are carrying the ash away and disrupting air travel throughout the region. Depending on the wind, the ash from Puyehue-Cordón Caulle is being carried 120-250 km from the vent, depending on the winds.

Once the ash and volcanic tephra is erupted, it isn’t the end to the hazard they pose. This image shows the accumulation of ash and volcanic tephra (video) on the waterways around Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, especially Lago Huishue, Gris and Constania on the eastern side of the image. Some smaller lakes are completely covered in volcanic debris. These deposits can be easily mobilized into the drainages and produce small lahars and mudflows that bring debris even further away. The drainage in the lower left hand side is grey with ash and volcanic debris that can clearly be seen entering Lago Puyehue as large, grey plumes. These accumulations of volcanic debris will likely be remobilized for years to decades after the eruption ends.

Image: The ash plume from Puyehue-Cordón Caulle seen on October 25, 2011. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory

 

Tungurahua, Ecuador

 

Tungurahua, Ecuador

Tungurahua, one of the more active volcanoes in South America, continues to rumble. Only 140 km from Quito, the volcano produced a 7.3 km / 24,000 ash/steam plume last week. The plume drifted in the opposite direction of the one pictured in this 2004 MODIS image of another eruption at Tungurahua.

Image: Ash plume from Tungurahua in Ecuador seen on January 14, 2004. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory.

 

Karymsky and neighboring volcanoes, Russia

 

Karymsky and neighboring volcanoes, Russia

The busy Kamchatka peninsula is well represented yet again in this week’s Volcanic Activity Report. I’ll focus on the activity at Karymsky, which was mostly moderate ash plumes that reached ~3.3 km / 10,000 feet and a thermal anomaly noted at the summit. This likely means a plug or dome of hot magma is the summit of the volcano and is the source for the explosive activity producing the plume. What you see above is a 2006 image of a plume from Karymsky that also captures of its notable volcanic neighbors, including Kronotsky, Krasheninnikov, Kikhpinych, Bolshoi Semiachik and Akademia Nauk.

Image: A collection of Kamchatkan volcanoes seen on November 29, 2006. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory.

 

Manam, Papau New Guinea

 

Manam, Papau New Guinea

Manam is an island volcano off Papau New Guinea and really, there is nothing else on the island except the volcano. It has been quite active over the last decade and evacuations of the few people who choose to live in Manam have been problematic with the constant activity, even after fatalities during an eruption in 2004. Currently the volcano is producing 3.7 km / 12,000 ash and steam plumes that drift east over the Pacific.

Image: A close up view of Manam in Papau New Guinea with young dark ash and lava flows on the flanks separated by green, vegetated areas. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory.

 

El Hierro, Canary Islands

 

El Hierro, Canary Islands

What Vulcan’s View would be complete without a shot of the ongoing eruption at El Hierro in the Canary Islands? This new image from October 27, 2011 shows the submarine plume from the new vents off the southern coast of El Hierro. Some of the material in the plume has made its way around the western shores to begin to wrap around the island. The most fascinating aspect of this plume is what sort of effect the plume will have on the ocean waters and ocean bottom environments, especially with how well mapped the plume has been by satellite. Be sure to check out the gallery of images from the BBC Mundo.

Image: An October 27, 2011 image of the submarine plume from the eruption at El Hierro. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory.

 

Popocatépetl, Mexico

 

Popocatépetl, Mexico

The activity at Popocatépetl isn’t exactly headline grabbing: steam-and-ash plumes with maybe some very minimal ash deposits. Par for the course for the Mexican volcano. I included Popo just to remind people about the threat the volcano poses to Mexico City and its outlying communities.

Image: A January 4, 2011 image of a diffuse steam-and-ash plume from Popocatépetl in Mexico. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory.

 

Suwanose-jima, Japan

 

Suwanose-jima, Japan

Another regular in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, Suwanose-jima, is one of the many volcanoes of the Ryukyu Islands. Unlike Sakura-jima, which gets a lot of the attention due to its proximity to a populated area, Suwanose-jima is on an depopulated island. The former population of the island left due to the volcanic threat posed by Suwanose-jima. The 2009 image of the volcano shows a moderate ash plume extending to the northeast from Suwanose-jima.

Image: The thick ash plume from Japan’s Suwanose-jima as seen on July 5, 2009. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory.

Download Full Movie John Wick: Chapter 2 (2017)

John Wick: Chapter 2 (2017) HD

Director : Chad Stahelski.
Producer : Basil Iwanyk.
Release : February 8, 2017
Country : United States of America.
Production Company : Thunder Road Pictures, LionsGate, 87Eleven.
Language : English, Italiano.
Runtime : 122 min.
Genre : Thriller, Action, Crime.

Movie ‘John Wick: Chapter 2’ was released in February 8, 2017 in genre Thriller. Chad Stahelski was directed this movie and starring by Keanu Reeves. This movie tell story about John Wick is forced out of retirement by a former associate looking to seize control of a shadowy international assassins’ guild. Bound by a blood oath to aid him, Wick travels to Rome and does battle against some of the world’s most dangerous killers.

Streaming Full Movie John Wick: Chapter 2 (2017) Online

Do not miss to Watch movie John Wick: Chapter 2 (2017) Online for free with your family. only 2 step you can Watch or download this movie with high quality video. Come and join us! because very much movie can you watch free streaming.

Watch and Download Full Movie John Wick: Chapter 2 (2017)

Incoming search term :

trailer film John Wick: Chapter 2, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 English Episodes, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Episodes Watch Online, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Episodes Online, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 live streaming movie, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Watch Online, Watch John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Online Viooz, Watch John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Online Megashare, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 For Free Online, live streaming movie John Wick: Chapter 2 online, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Full Episode, streaming film John Wick: Chapter 2, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Full Episodes Online, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 English Full Episodes Online Free Download, Watch John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Online Free megashare, watch full movie John Wick: Chapter 2, Watch John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Online Free Putlocker, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 English Full Episodes Download, John Wick: Chapter 2 film, film John Wick: Chapter 2 online streaming, Watch John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Online Free putlocker, John Wick: Chapter 2 live streaming film, movie John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 trailer, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 English Episode, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 HD English Full Episodes Download, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 English Full Episodes Free Download, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 For Free online, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 HD Full Episodes Online, download film John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 now, watch John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 movie now, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 English Episodes Free Watch Online, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 English Full Episodes Watch Online, John Wick: Chapter 2 movie trailer, Watch John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Online Putlocker, watch full John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 film, Watch John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Online Free, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Full Episodes Watch Online, watch full movie John Wick: Chapter 2 online, John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Online Free Megashare, download full film John Wick: Chapter 2 2017, watch film John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 now, Watch John Wick: Chapter 2 2017 Online Free Viooz,

High-Tech Hydroponic Farm Transforms Abandoned Bowling Alley

High-Tech Hydroponic Farm Transforms Abandoned Bowling Alley | Wired Science | Wired.com.

Gotham Greens

NEW YORK CITY — On top of an old bowling alley in industrial northern Brooklyn sits an expansive translucent greenhouse. Inside, a bounty of produce thrives under the supervision of a computer-controlled network of sensors, motors and plumbing.

The 15,000-square-foot hydroponic greenhouse facility, called Gotham Greens, is reputedly the first commercial-scale urban operation of its kind in the United States. Thousands of lettuce and basil seedlings were plopped into a soil-less farming system in May. Since then, three local entrepreneurs say their operation is on track to deliver 100 tons of produce by the one-year mark.

While that pales in comparison to about 1.5 million tons of soil-free produce trucked into the city each year, and is far less than the output of nearby soil rooftop farms, the $2 million startup can’t keep up with demand from the city’s top chefs and upscale grocery stores.

“On the first harvest day we had so much lettuce we almost didn’t know what to do with it all, but now we can’t grow it fast enough,” said greenhouse director Jennifer Nelkin.

Gotham Greens is already eyeing some of the the city’s more than 940 million square feet of rooftop space to expand their high-tech operation.

The hardest task, said co-founder and CEO Viraj Puri, is convincing landlords to entertain the idea of putting a watery business on their rooftops. After that it’s a matter of navigating zoning restrictions, building codes and figuring out how to engineer the plumbing.

“You can’t bury anything on a roof,” Puri said. “It requires some clever technology.”

Images: 1) Inside Gotham Greens at 810 Humboldt St. in Greenpoint, Brooklyn. (Dave Mosher/Wired.com) 2) The outside of the greenhouse. (Copyright of Gotham Greens)

 

seedlings in basalt rock plugs

 

Plant Plugs

The greenhouse begins its work by germinating seeds of four lettuce types and one basil variety in plastic bins. Fibrous plugs, spun from a volcanic rock called basalt, draw water to the fledgling roots and provide a medium for them to grow in.

“Not just hydroponic growers use the plugs,” Nelkin said. “A lot of farmers try and get a head-start at their soil farms, usually about six weeks before they can plant, by germinating seedlings in them.”

Images: Dave Mosher/Wired.com

 

irrigation system

 

Irrigating Gutters

Between 10 and 14 days after planting in the basalt plugs (above), the seeds sprout into seedlings and are ushered into hydroponic gutters (below). A series of pumps and drains constantly move nutrient-rich water through the gutters. Gotham Greens uses the nutrient film technique, which circulates a very shallow layer of water to supply roots with ample oxygen. Tight control over the nutrients and climate gives growers extreme control over their products.

“Many [hydroponic] tomatoes in the store, for example, taste like a swimming pool — and it’s too bad they’re giving hydroponics a bad name. It’s indicative of the grower, not the method,” Nelkin said. “You can really manipulate produce with hydroponics. You can choose to grow a tasteless tomato full of water, or grow the best, sweetest, juiciest tomato you’ve ever had.”

Images: Dave Mosher/Wired.com

 

calcium iron micronutrient bucket

 

Produce Juice

Plants primarily need water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur to grow. Most of these  materials come from air and tap water, but some trace nutrients need to be supplemented.

Gotham Greens stores nutrient mixes in giant buckets (above). When low levels are detected by sensors or in human-collected samples, computer-controlled pumps move the fluid into a nearby lagoon. (For proprietary reasons, Wired.com was only allowed to photograph this part of the system.) From there the solution is delivered to the gutters, and runoff returns to the lagoon for recycling.

The irrigation system is less complex than those of other hydroponic greenhouses, but Nelkin said anything more would be cost-prohibitive. “For our scale, it doesn’t make practical sense to micromanage every nutrient,” she said. “We’re not that large.” Their water comes from the tap.

Image: Dave Mosher/Wired.com

 

weather station

 

Climate Control

Important to Gotham Greens’ farming efficiency is a computer controller that monitors environmental conditions, keeping the greenhouse climate as ideal as possible for each type of veggie.

A weather station (above) monitors outdoor conditions while a photometer (below) and other sensors help keep tabs inside.

“When it hits a certain climate, [the controller] can turn on the fans, draw the sun shades, open vents, turn on the lights, turn on the heaters and so on,” Nelkin said.

Images: Dave Mosher/Wired.com

 

fly paper

 

Shoo, Fly

But what of the pests found in abundance near any unprotected plant? Gotham Greens doesn’t use pesticides. They fight fire with bug-eating fire.

Colored plastic cards covered with sticky goo attract the pests, which Nelkin and others check each day. When a bothersome bug is identified, Nelkin shops online for its predator, orders it and releases hordes of them in the greenhouse.

For aphids (above), a tray of ladybugs (below) usually does the trick.

“About 1,000 ladybugs costs probably $20,” Nelkin said. “It’s more expensive than pesticides, but it works.”

Controlling other pests requires the introduction of predatory wasps.

Images: Dave Mosher/Wired.com

 

solar panels

 

Green Power

Intelligent, organic greenhouses require electricity for lamps, pumps, computers and more. Solar panels installed by Gotham Greens satisfy about half of the facility’s needs, roughly enough to power 12 New York City households.

“Over the summer, we generated a good amount of power,” Puri said. “We’re going to track that data so we’ll be able to say exactly how much they help per year.”

Image: Dave Mosher/Wired.com

 

Jennifer Nelkin and Viraj Puri

 

Co-founders

Jennifer Nelkin (above, left) and Viraj Puri dreamed up Gotham Greens in 2008 after collaborating on a greenhouse that floated on the Hudson River. They’re now spending 100 percent of their time to develop Gotham Greens along with co-founder Eric Haley.

Their local food business may cut back carbon emissions better than most farms by minimizing transportation and relying on solar energy, but Puri said their main focus is delivering good produce. “The green aspects are a great bonus, but we want to be known for the quality of our products,” he said.

After Gotham Greens’ trial year ends in 2012, the company hopes to expand its line of crops to include tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, squash, strawberries and even eggplant.

Images: Dave Mosher/Wired.com

Yellowstone Supervolcano & Caldera

Yellowstone Supervolcano & Caldera ? Volcanic Eruptions & Seismic Activity ? Molten Rock, Magma Plume | Our Amazing Planet.

yellowstone-plume-110411-02.jpg

The volcanic plume of partly molten rock that feeds the Yellowstone supervolcano. Yellow and red indicate higher conductivity, green and blue indicate lower conductivity. Made by University of Utah geophysicists and computer scientists, this is the first large-scale ‘geoelectric’ image of the Yellowstone hotspot. Credit: University of Utah.

 

The gigantic underground plume of partly molten rock that feeds the Yellowstone supervolcano might be bigger than previously thought, a new image suggests.

The study says nothing about the chances of a cataclysmic eruption at Yellowstone, but it provides scientists with a valuable new perspective on the vast and deep reservoir of fiery material that feeds such eruptions, the last of which occurred more than 600,000 years ago. [Related: Infographic – The Geology of Yellowstone.]

Earlier measurements of the plume were produced by using seismic waves — the waves generated by earthquakes — to create a picture of the underground region. The new picture was produced by examining the Yellowstone plume’s electrical conductivity, which is generated by molten silicate rocks and hot briny water that is naturally present and mixed in with partly molten rock.

“It’s a totally new and different way of imaging and looking at the volcanic roots of Yellowstone,” said study co-author Robert B. Smith, professor emeritus and research professor of geophysics at the University of Utah, and a coordinating scientist of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory.

Ancient eruptions

Almost 17 million years ago, the deep plume of partly molten rock known as the Yellowstone hot spot first breached the surface in an eruption near what is now the Oregon-Idaho-Nevada border.

As North America drifted slowly southwest over the hot spot, there were more than 140 gargantuan caldera eruptions — the largest kind of eruption on Earth — along a northeast-trending path that is now Idaho’s Snake River Plain.

The hot spot finally reached Yellowstone about 2 million years ago, yielding three huge caldera eruptions about 2 million, 1.3 million and 642,000 years ago.

Two of the eruptions blanketed half of North America with volcanic ash, producing 2,500 times and 1,000 times more ash than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington state. Smaller eruptions occurred at Yellowstone in between the big blasts and as recently as 70,000 years ago.

Underground images

Smith said the geoelectric and seismic images of the Yellowstone plume look somewhat different because “we are imaging slightly different things.” Seismic images highlight materials such as molten or partly molten rock that slow seismic waves, while the geoelectric image is sensitive to briny fluids that conduct electricity.

Seismic images of the plume made by Smith in 2009 showed the plume of molten rock dips downward from Yellowstone at a 60-degree angle and extends 150 miles (240 kilometers) west-northwest to a point at least 410 miles (660 km) under the Montana-Idaho border — as far as seismic imaging could “see.”

The new electrical conductivity images show the conductive part of the plume dipping more gently, at an angle of perhaps 40 degrees to the west, and extending perhaps 400 miles (640 km) from east to west. The geoelectric image can “see” to a depth of only 200 miles (320 km).

The lesser tilt of the geoelectric plume image raises the possibility that the seismically imaged plume, shaped somewhat like a tilted tornado, may be enveloped by a broader, underground sheath of partly molten rock and liquids, Zhdanov and Smith say.

“It’s a bigger size” in the geoelectric picture, Smith said. “We can infer there are more fluids” than shown by seismic images. Despite differences, he said, “this body that conducts electricity is in about the same location with similar geometry as the seismically imaged Yellowstone plume.”

The new study has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union, which plans to publish it within the next few weeks.

Streaming Movie Grimsby (2016) Online

Poster Movie Grimsby 2016

Grimsby (2016) HD

Director : Louis Leterrier.
Producer : Sacha Baron Cohen, Peter Baynham, Anthony Hines, Nira Park, Todd Schulman.
Release : February 24, 2016
Country : Australia, United Kingdom.
Production Company : Columbia Pictures, Village Roadshow Pictures, Big Talk Productions, Sony Pictures Entertainment (SPE), Working Title Films, LStar Capital, Four by Two Films.
Language : English.
Runtime : 83 min.
Genre : Action, Comedy.

‘Grimsby’ is a movie genre Action, was released in February 24, 2016. Louis Leterrier was directed this movie and starring by Sacha Baron Cohen. This movie tell story about Wrongfully accused and on the run, a top MI6 assassin joins forces with his long-lost, football hooligan brother to save the world from a sinister plot.

Streaming Movie Grimsby (2016) Online

Do not miss to Watch movie Grimsby (2016) Online for free with your family. only 2 step you can Watch or download this movie with high quality video. Come and join us! because very much movie can you watch free streaming.

Watch and Download Full Movie Grimsby (2016)
Incoming search term :

Grimsby 2016 Episodes Online
Grimsby 2016 Watch Online
Grimsby 2016 English Episodes
Watch Grimsby 2016 Online Megashare
Grimsby 2016 English Episode
movie Grimsby download
watch Grimsby 2016 movie online now
Watch Grimsby 2016 Online Free Putlocker
watch full film Grimsby 2016
film Grimsby 2016 trailer
download Grimsby 2016 movie now
download full film Grimsby
Grimsby 2016 HD Full Episodes Online
watch movie Grimsby 2016 now
Grimsby 2016 English Full Episodes Online Free Download
watch full Grimsby movie
film Grimsby 2016 online
Grimsby 2016 For Free Online
Grimsby 2016 Full Episodes Online
watch full Grimsby 2016 film
Grimsby 2016 HD English Full Episodes Download
Grimsby 2016 English Episodes Free Watch Online
Grimsby 2016 Online Free Megashare
Watch Grimsby 2016 Online Free Viooz
Grimsby 2016 English Full Episodes Download
Grimsby 2016 Full Episode
Grimsby 2016 Episodes Watch Online
movie Grimsby 2016 streaming
Watch Grimsby 2016 Online Putlocker
Grimsby 2016 English Full Episodes Watch Online
streaming Grimsby
watch full film Grimsby online
Watch Grimsby 2016 Online Free
Grimsby 2016 Full Episodes Watch Online
watch film Grimsby now
Watch Grimsby 2016 Online Free megashare
Watch Grimsby 2016 Online Viooz
Grimsby 2016 For Free online
Grimsby 2016 film
film Grimsby streaming
Watch Grimsby 2016 Online Free putlocker
Grimsby 2016 English Full Episodes Free Download

Floods Inch Closer To Heart Of Thailand's Capital

Floods Inch Closer To Heart Of Thailand’s Capital | Fox News.

BANGKOK — Clamoring aboard bamboo rafts and army trucks, residents living on the heavily inundated outskirts of Bangkok fled waterlogged homes Thursday as floodwaters inched closer to the heart of the threatened Thai capital and foreign governments urged their citizens to avoid all but essential travel.

Most of the city remained dry and most of its more than 9 million residents were staying put to protect their homes. Still, uncertainty over Bangkok’s fate and the start of a government-declared five-day holiday fueled an exodus of thousands of people fearing the worst who took to clogged highways and air terminals to get out of town.

Tears welling in her eyes, Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra acknowledged her government could not control the approaching deluge.

“What we’re doing today is resisting the force of nature,” Yingluck told reporters. She said the water bearing down on Bangkok was so massive that “we cannot resist all of it.”

The floods, the heaviest in Thailand in more than half a century, have drenched a third of the country’s provinces and killed close to 400 people. For weeks, they have crept down from the central plains, flowing south toward the Gulf of Thailand. Bangkok is in the way, and today it is literally surrounded by behemoth pools of water flowing around and through it via a complex network of canals and rivers.

By Thursday, flooding had inundated seven of Bangkok’s 50 districts, most on the northern outskirts. There, roads have turned into rivers and homes and businesses are swamped. On a flooded key east-west artery, police were turning back small cars, telling them the road had become impassable.

The government has expressed deep concern over higher-than-normal tides expected through the weekend. Yingluck has warned the entire city could flood if the Chao Phraya river, which snakes its way through the heart of the metropolis, crests above flood barriers lining its banks.

The river has overflowed already, sending ankle-high water lapping at the white exterior walls of Bangkok’s gilded Grand Palace, a highly treasured complex that once housed the kingdom’s monarchy and is a major tourist attraction.

The water has receded with the tides, slightly flooding the area in the morning and evening, but leaving it bone dry in the afternoon.

After visiting the Grand Palace on Thursday, American tourist Kathy Kiernan said she wasn’t too concerned about flooding in the capital.

“We were a little worried when we got in to see sandbags around our hotel,” said the 47-year-old from Salt Lake City, Utah. “But so far it’s pretty normal. Everything looks fine, though we know anything can happen.”

Though floods a day earlier swept through Bangkok’s Don Muang airport and shut it down, the city’s main international airport is operating as usual.

Several foreign governments issued advisories urging their citizens against all but essential travel to Bangkok. Britain’s Foreign Office said “flooding is likely to disrupt transport, close tourist attractions and may affect electricity and water supplies.”

The U.S. Embassy cautioned Americans that ground travel around Thailand was difficult and the situation should be monitored closely.

Buses, planes and trains at the city’s transportation hubs were filling up, as many decided to wait out the floods in their home towns or in unaffected beach resorts to Bangkok’s south and east.As fears of urban disaster set in, emergency preparations continued.

Websites posted instructions on the proper way to stack sandbags. Many residents fortified vulnerable areas of their houses with bricks, gypsum board and plastic sheets. Walls of sandbags or cinderblocks covered the entrances of many buildings.

Residents stocking up on necessities have raided supermarket shelves, setting off a cycle of panic buying, and stores have posted notices that flooding has disrupted supply chains and left them unable to restock some items. But food was nevertheless plentiful, as most of the city’s thousands of restaurants, bars and street-side food stalls were operating full-swing.

Nuntaporn Khorcharoen, whose home is adjacent to the heavily inundated Bang Phlat district, said her family had stocked up and was staying put.

“My father is adamant we have to stay to oversee the situation,” the 30-year-old said. “He said even without electricity, we will still have something to live on.”

Wendy Zukerman, Asia-Pacific reporter

bangkokfloods.jpg(Image: Altaf Qadri/AP/PA)

Bangkok’s main river broke its banks overnight forcing thousands of residents to flee the flooding Thai capital.

Last week, Thailand’s government was confident that Bangkok’s elaborate scheme of flood walls, canals, dikes and underground tunnels would protect the city of nine million people from flooding.

But quoting governor Sukhumbhand Paribatra, Reuters reports that 90 per cent of Bangkok’s northern Don Muang district is under water and another fifteen city districts were threatened by floods this weekend. “Massive water is coming,” Sukhumbhand said.

Chao Phraya River, which snakes around Bangkok, swelled after floodwaters from the north teamed with increasingly high tides. The BBC reports that Sukhumbhand issued an evacuation alert for residents in three northern districts. “This is the first time I am using the term ‘evacuation’, the first time I’m really asking you to leave,” Mr Sukhumbhand said.

Thailand’s prime minister, Yingluck Shinwatra, told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation that much of Bangkok is now expected to see floodwaters of between 10 centimetres and 1.5 metres depending on area, diversion strategies and the strength of dykes. “After assessing the situation, we expect floodwater to remain in Bangkok for around two weeks to one month before going into the sea,” she told reporters on Wednesday.

According to Reuters, this deluge is caused by unusually heavy monsoon rain.

It is Thailand’s worst flooding in fifty years. Since mid July 373 people have died, and the waters have disrupted the lives of nearly 2.5 million. More than 113,000 people are in shelters and 720,000 people seeking medical attention.

Watch Movie Online Logan (2017)

History of deadly earthquakes

BBC News – History of deadly earthquakes.

Does NOT include the 6.9 that just hit Peru…..

 

Christchurch earthquake scene Many of the homes damaged in New Zealand’s Christchurch quake cannot be rebuilt
How earthquakes happen

Earthquakes have claimed hundreds of thousands of lives in the last 100 years and improvements in technology have only slightly reduced the death toll.

23 October 2011

More than 200 people are killed and 1,000 are injured in a powerful 7.2 magnitude earthquake which hits south-eastern Turkey; many of the victims are in the town of Ercis, where dozens of buildings have fallen.

11 March 2011

A devastating magnitude 8.9 quake strikes Japan, leaving more than 20,000 people dead or missing. The tremor generates a massive tsunami along the Japanese coast and triggers the world’s biggest nuclear disaster since Chernobyl in 1986.

22 February 2011

A magnitude 6.3 earthquake shatters the New Zealand city of Christchurch, killing more than 160 people and damaging some 100,000 homes.

14 April 2010

At least 400 people die after a magnitude 6.9 earthquake strikes western China’s Qinghai province.

27 February 2010

A magnitude 8.8 earthquake hits central Chile north-east of the second city, Concepcion. Official figures put the total number of people at over 700.

12 January 2010

About 230,000 die in and around the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince, as a 7.0 magnitude earthquake strikes the city.

30 September 2009

At least 1,000 people die and at least 1,000 remain missing after an earthquake strikes the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

6 April 2009

An earthquake hits the historic Italian city of L’Aquila, killing about 300 people.Watch movie online The Transporter Refueled (2015)

29 October 2008

Up to 300 people are killed in the Pakistani province of Balochistan after an earthquake of 6.4 magnitude struck 45 miles (70km) north of Quetta.

12 May 2008

Up to 87,000 people are killed or missing and as many as 370,000 injured by an earthquake in just one county in China’s south-western Sichuan province.

The tremor, measuring 7.8, struck 57 miles (92km) from the provincial capital Chengdu during the early afternoon.

15 August 2007

At least 519 people are killed in Peru’s coastal province of Ica, as a 7.90-magnitude undersea earthquake strikes about 90 miles (145km) south-east of the capital, Lima.

17 July 2006

A 7.7 magnitude undersea earthquake triggers a tsunami that strikes a 125 miles (200km) stretch of the southern coast of Java, killing more than 650 people on the Indonesian island.

27 May 2006

More than 5,700 people die when a magnitude 6.2 quake hits the Indonesian island of Java, devastating the city of Yogyakarta and surrounding areas.

1 April 2006

Seventy people are killed and some 1,200 injured when an earthquake measuring 6.0 strikes a remote region of western Iran.

8 October 2005

An earthquake measuring 7.6 strikes northern Pakistan and the disputed Kashmir region, killing more than 73,000 people and leaving millions homeless.

28 March 2005

About 1,300 people are killed in an 8.7 magnitude quake off the coast of the Indonesian island of Nias, west of Sumatra.

22 February 2005

Hundreds die in a 6.4 magnitude quake centred in a remote area near Zarand in Iran’s Kerman province.

26 December 2004

Hundreds of thousands are killed across Asia when an earthquake measuring 9.2 triggers sea surges that spread across the region.

24 February 2004

At least 500 people die in an earthquake which strikes towns on Morocco’s Mediterranean coast.

26 December 2003

More than 26,000 people are killed when an earthquake destroys the historic city of Bam in southern Iran.

21 May 2003

Algeria suffers its worst earthquake in more than two decades. More than 2,000 people die and more than 8,000 are injured in a quake felt across the sea in Spain.

1 May 2003

More than 160 people are killed, including 83 children in a collapsed dormitory, in south-eastern Turkey.

24 February 2003

More than 260 people die and almost 10,000 homes are destroyed in Xinjiang region, in western China.

31 October 2002

Italy is traumatised by the loss of an entire class of children, killed in the southern village of San Giuliano di Puglia when their school building collapses on them.

26 January 2001

An earthquake measuring magnitude 7.9 devastates much of Gujarat state in north-western India, killing nearly 20,000 people and making more than a million homeless. Bhuj and Ahmedabad are among the towns worst hit.

12 November 1999

Around 400 people die when an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale strikes Ducze, in north-west Turkey.

21 September 1999

Taiwan is hit by a quake measuring 7.6 that kills nearly 2,500 people and causes damage to every town on the island.

17 August 1999

An magnitude 7.4 earthquake rocks the Turkish cities of Izmit and Istanbul, leaving more than 17,000 dead and many more injured.

30 May 1998

Northern Afghanistan is hit by a major earthquake, killing 4,000 people.

May 1997

More than 1,600 killed in Birjand, eastern Iran, in an earthquake of magnitude 7.1.

27 May 1995

The far eastern island of Sakhalin is hit by a massive earthquake, measuring 7.5, which claims the lives of 1,989 Russians.

17 January 1995

The Hyogo quake hits the city of Kobe in Japan, killing 6,430 people.

30 September 1993

About 10,000 villagers are killed in western and southern India.

21 June 1990

About 40,000 people die in a tremor in the northern Iranian province of Gilan.

7 December 1988

An earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale devastates north-west Armenia, killing 25,000 people.

19 September 1985

Mexico City is shaken by a huge earthquake which razes buildings and kills 10,000 people.

4 March 1977

Some 1,500 people are killed in an earthquake that hit close to the Romanian capital, Bucharest.

28 July 1976

The Chinese city of Tangshan is reduced to rubble in a quake that claims at least 250,000 lives.

23 December 1972

Up to 10,000 people are killed in the Nicaraguan capital Managua by an earthquake that measures 6.5 on the Richter scale. The devastation caused by the earthquake was blamed on badly built high-rise buildings that easily collapsed.

31 May 1970

An earthquake high in the Peruvian Andes triggers a landslide burying the town of Yungay and killing 66,000 people.

26 July 1963

An earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale strikes the Macedonian capital of Skopje killing 1,000 and leaving 100,000 homeless.

22 May 1960

The world’s strongest recorded earthquake devastates Chile, with a reading of 9.5 on the Richter scale. A tsunami 30ft (10m) high eliminates entire villages in Chile and kills 61 hundreds of miles away in Hawaii.

1 September 1923

The Great Kanto earthquake, with its epicentre just outside Tokyo, claims the lives of 142,800 people in the Japanese capital.

18 April 1906

San Francisco is hit by a series of violent shocks which last up to a minute. Between 700 and 3,000 people die either from collapsing buildings or in the subsequent fire.

Death toll soars from Turkish quake

Death toll soars from Turkish quake – CNN.

The death toll from the massive earthquake that shook eastern Turkey over the weekend rose to 535 Thursday, up from 471 the day before, but crews have been able to rescue 185 people alive from the rubble, Turkish officials said.

In addition, about 2,300 people were injured by the 7.2-magnitude earthquake that struck Sunday, according to the Turkish Disaster and Emergency Relief Agency.

Meanwhile, crews rescued 18-year-old Imdat Padak alive from the rubble of an apartment building in Ercis almost 100 hours after the earthquake, the semi-official Anatolian new agency reported.

Advertisement

After teams from Azerbaijan retrieved him, Padak was taken to a hospital for initial treatment, and then was airlifted by helicopter to Van.

Padak appeared not to have any significant trauma, but was suffering dehydration. He is reported to be a student from the village of Kiziloren and was taking courses while preparing for university entrance exams.

Earlier in the week, crews pulled a 2-week-old baby, Azra Karaduman, alive from the debris.

The developments came as there were reports of a moderate earthquake in the country’s south.

A 5.2 earthquake hit about 200 kilometers (125 miles) south of the center of Sunday’s quake, near the border with Iraq, the U.S. Geological Survey reported.

There were no immediate reports of damage from the latest quake.

Padak was the latest of several people found alive in the rubble days after Sunday’s quake. On Wednesday rescuers pulled two people from collapsed buildings.

Britain has pledged emergency tents for more than 5,500 people whose homes were destroyed, Home Secretary Theresa May said during a visit to Turkey Thursday.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-15457897

Turkey will accept offers of aid from foreign countries to cope with the aftermath of the Van earthquake, after initially declining offers of help.

Officials said that, with more than 2,000 buildings destroyed, there was an urgent need for accommodation.

The death toll from the disaster stood at 461 but the Red Crescent fears hundreds are still trapped under rubble, feared dead.

A teacher, 27, and a student, 18, were rescued on Wednesday in Ercis.

Gozde Bahar, an English-language teacher, was rescued as her mother watched in tears.

University student Eyup Erdem was found using tiny cameras mounted on sticks.

Rescuers broke into applause as he emerged from the debris.

Caravans needed

Turkey is seeking assistance for reconstruction and temporary accommodation for the thousands who have been left homeless, the semi-official news agency Anatolia reports.

Analysis

From the start, the Turkish government has insisted it can deal with the impact of the earthquake on its own. It is a relatively wealthy and modern country, with experienced disaster management teams in place.

Now it has reversed course, requesting aid even from Israel, with which it has had difficult relations in recent years.

The reason is that Turkey is short of some items, like prefabricated housing, vital for areas of eastern Turkey where tens of thousands have either lost their homes or cannot risk going back to damaged houses.

The weather is already cold, and will become much colder in a couple of months. Rescue workers are continuing to dig in the rubble of collapsed buildings, spurred on by finding a handful of survivors, among them a two-week-old baby.

The government is seeking tents, prefabricated houses and living containers, it says.

Israel will be among the first to send aid, according to AFP news agency.

Ties with Turkey have been strained since May 2010, when Israeli naval commandos stormed a flotilla trying to sail to Gaza in defiance of a blockade, killing nine Turks.

“Turkey has asked us for caravans for the homeless after the earthquake,” Israeli foreign ministry spokesman Yigal Palmor told AFP.

He said they had accepted the request and would seek to supply them as quickly as possible.

Israel’s defence ministry said a first Boeing 747 would transport mobile homes to Turkey on Wednesday, and other planes would follow in the coming days.

The Japanese embassy in Ankara said its government would send around $400,000 (£250,000), Anatolia reports.

The BBC’s Jonathan Head, in Ercis, says that the government has recognised that it now needs specific help in technical areas where it lacks the resources to get things up fast enough.

Aid trucks looted

The Turkish government has pledged more aid to the thousands made homeless and aid agencies have set up field hospitals and kitchens and distributed thousands of tents and blankets.

But survivors, many now living in camps, have fought over shipments of aid and blocked aid shipments.

Health officials have urged them to drink bottled water after detecting an increase in diarrhoea cases, especially among children.

Nazmi Gur, a local politician in Van, told the BBC News website that “hundreds of thousands of people” needed help.

Two people were pulled from the rubble on Wednesday

“We can provide food but they desperately need shelter,” he added.

The Turkish Red Crescent said that 17 trucks carrying aid had been looted in Van and Ercis.

People in Ercis, which bore the full brunt of the quake, told AFP that unidentified individuals had stopped a truck carrying tents. They told AFP they suspected the goods would be sold on the black market.

Local officials in Van said that early on Wednesday, dozens of survivors, furious at not receiving aid supplies, had raided trucks carrying food and blankets in the city of Van.

Turkish officials have warned that the death toll is likely to rise but there has been no official estimate of the number of people missing.

Turkey is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes because it sits on major geological fault lines.

The latest disaster struck on Sunday at 13:41 (10:41 GMT) at a depth of 20km (12 miles), with its epicentre 16km north-east of the city of Van.

Turkey earthquake map

More on This Story

Related Stories

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/27/us-turkey-quake-idUSTRE79M10Z20111027

ERCIS, Turkey | Thu Oct 27, 2011 7:05pm EDT

(Reuters) – Rescue workers pulled a man from the rubble alive on Thursday, more than four days after a huge quake killed at least 534 in Turkey, while homeless survivors fearing death from cold begged for aid and some accused the government of a slow response.

“Praise be to Allah!” cried the uncle of 18-year-old Imdat, whose name means “help” in Turkish, as hundreds of onlookers gave shouts of joy in the town of Ercis, the place worst hit by Sunday’s 7.2 magnitude quake in eastern Turkey.

A military rescue team from Azerbaijan rescued Imdat after burrowing deep into the rubble for more than two days.

Freed at last after more than 100 hours buried alive, Imdat was lifted onto a stretcher by medical workers who carried him through cheering crowds crying “Allahu Akbar!” to a waiting ambulance, which whisked him away to hospital.

The dramatic scene was a brief moment of joy after an earthquake that has devastated towns and villages and left thousands sleeping in the open, as the government struggles to deliver tents, food and other aid to distraught families.

Some survivors — who had stood in long queues only to be told there were no tents left — accused officials in the mostly Kurdish region of handing aid to supporters of the ruling AK party. Others said profiteers were hoarding tents and reselling them.

“Everyone is getting sick and wet. We have been waiting in line for four days like this and still nothing. It gets to our turn and they say they have run out,” said Fetih Zengin, 38, an estate agent whose house was badly damaged in Ercis, a town of 100,000.

“We slept under a piece of plastic erected on some wood boards we found. We have 10 children in our family, they are getting sick. Everyone needs a tent, snow is coming. It’s a disaster.”

Ergun Ozmen, 37, was carrying loaves of bread after queuing for food. “People are taking 10 tents and selling them. It’s a disgrace. I slept in the municipal park all night in the rain. My shoes are filled with water. I only registered to get a tent this morning as I have been busy burying the dead,” he said.

The death toll rose to 534, with 2,300 injured in the biggest quake in more than a decade in Turkey. The Disaster and Emergency Administration said 185 people had been rescued alive from collapsed buildings since the quake.

Searches for survivors went on at some sites but at others rescuers stopped work. The bodies of a mother and her baby were pulled out from one building during the night, witnesses said.

Answering Turkey’s call for help in the form of tents, prefabricated housing and containers, foreign aid began pouring in with the first planeloads landing from France, Ukraine — and Israel, despite poor relations between the two countries.

British Home Secretary Theresa May, who is visiting Turkey, said London would send 1,144 protective winter tents. Saudi television reported Saudi Arabia would give Turkey $50 million for quake relief.

The U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs(OCHA) was providing 400 winterized tents, each able to hold five people.

An OCHA spokeswoman said Erzurum, a city 260 km (160 miles) northwest of Ercis, would be a hub for international assistance sent by plane. Van had been asked to establish a center for assistance coming overland, she said.

“MORE DISCIPLINED”

After days of survivors lining up and sometimes arguing outside distribution centers, the government announced it would no longer hand out tents but would deliver them to those whose homes were deemed unsafe to make sure the neediest got them.

“We will no longer give a tent to whoever asks for one. We will identify the buildings that are unusable and we will deliver the tents ourselves,” Environment and Urban Planning Minister Erdogan Bayraktar said, urging survivors to return to homes that were not structurally damaged.

“We will be distributing the tents in a more disciplined manner. We have 6,000 tents in hand and more are coming. Soon we will start the delivery of containers to villages.”

But Mehmet Yildiz, a 50-year-old shop owner who has a two-storey house in the city of Van, said he and his family of 10 were too afraid to go back to his house.

“My house is full of cracks. Whatever the government thinks I am not going inside the house. We are having our kids sleep in the car and the rest of us roam all night long in the streets. They say they won’t give me a tent because my house is not destroyed,” he told Reuters under an umbrella in the rain.

Agriculture Minister Mehdi Eker said the government would distribute special tents to house cattle and sheep in mud-brick villages, which have suffered the worst damage and where 3,088 barns have been destroyed.

CLINGING TO HOPE

Exhausted relatives clung to the hope that loved ones would be found, keeping vigil at the site of their destroyed homes as the search for any sign of life went on.

Overnight, groups of shell-shocked people with no home to go to roamed aimlessly, huddling round fires as temperatures dropped to freezing. Others congregated in relief camps.

“After 15 days, half of the people here will die, freeze to death,” said Orhan Ogunc, a 37-year-old man in Guvencli, a village of some 200 homes deep in the hills between Ercis and the city of Van. His family had a Red Crescent tent, but were sharing it with five other families.

Few are ready to leave their land.

“They say we will get prefabricated houses in one-and-a-half months,” said Zeki Yatkin, 46, who lost his father in the quake. “We can’t tolerate the cold, but what else can we do?”

Bayraktar said 5,250 homes had been destroyed or badly damaged and 20,000 other households were “affected” in Van, Ercis and outlying villages.

A 5.4 magnitude quake hit the region on Thursday morning but there were no immediate reports of further damage.

More than 40,000 people have been killed in a Kurdish separatist insurgency in the region that has lasted three decades. Last week militants killed 24 troops in neighboring Hakkari province.

Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan’s government wants to build bridges with minority Kurds, so any accusations of neglect or ineptitude are politically sensitive.

The governor of Van province, Munir Karaloglu, who is a central government appointee, has rejected criticism of the relief efforts. He said the number of tents distributed would reach 28,000 by Thursday, adding that was far more than needed.

Deputy mayor Cahit Bozbay, a member of the pro-Kurdish Peace and Democracy Party, gave a bleaker assessment and criticised the governor’s office for not working with officials.

“We are short of tents. It’s a major problem,” Bozbay said. “We lack supplies, but honestly the aid delivery organization is also problematic.”

(Additional reporting Humeyra Pamuk and Evrim Ergin in Van; Writing by Ibon Villelabeitia, Simon Cameron-Moore and Daren Butler; Editing by Tim Pearce)

World will miss economic benefit of 1.8 billion youth

UN: World will miss economic benefit of 1.8 billion young people | Environment | guardian.co.uk.

Population report says lack of education, infrastructure and jobs will mean a generation’s potential will be wasted

Write a letter to the 7 billionth person

Shoeshine boys wait for customers in New Delhi, India

Shoeshine boys awaiting customers in New Delhi, India. Photograph: Kevin Frayer/AP

The world is in danger of missing a golden opportunity for development and economic growth, a “demographic dividend”, as the largest cohort of young people ever known see their most economically productive years wasted, a major UN population report warned on Wednesday.

The potential economic benefits of having such a large global population of young people will go unfulfilled, as a generation suffers from a lack of education, and investment in infrastructure and job creation, the authors said.

“When young people can claim their rights to health, education and decent working conditions, they become a powerful force for economic development and positive change. “This opportunity [for] a demographic dividend is a fleeting moment that must be claimed quickly or lost,” said the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), in its Global Population Report, published just days before the UN forecasted the world population will pass 7 billion. Of this 7 billion, 1.8 billion are aged between 10 and 24, and 90% of those live in the developing world.

The report also reveals average life expectancy across the globe has risen by 20 years since the 1950s, from 48 to 68, as healthcare and nutrition have improved, while infant mortality has fallen fast, from 133 deaths per 1,000 births in the 1950s to 46 per 1,000 today.

These successes area a cause to celebrate, the United Nations said. Fertility has also halved, from 6 births per woman to 2.5 over the same period, though there are stark regional differences – fertility is 1.6 births per woman in east Asia but 5 per woman in some parts of Africa.

The report found a “vicious cycle” of extreme poverty, food insecurity and inequality leading to high death rates, that in turn encourages high birth rates. Only by investing in health and education for women and girls can countries break the cycle, as improving living conditions will allow parents to be more confident that their children will survive, and therefore have smaller families.

Crucial to this will be allowing women and girls greater freedom and equality, in order to make their own choices about fertility. Hundreds of millions of women would prefer to have smaller families, but are unable to exercise this preference owing to a culture of repression.

“Governments that are serious about eradicating poverty should also be serious about providing the services, supplies and information that women need to exercise their reproductive rights,” said Babatunde Osotimehin, executive director of the UNFPA. On the empowerment of woman, he said at a press conference in London: “we have come a long way, but we are not there yet. There is no group that gives up power voluntarily. Men will not give up power to women voluntarily. Women have to fight. Women need to work together.”

One way of doing so highlighted in the report is to provide a good level of sex education to adolescents, and access to modern methods of contraception.

The report said: “When women have equal rights and opportunities in their societies and when girls are educated and healthy, fertility rates fall … the empowerment of women is not simply an end in itself, but also a step towards eradicating poverty.”

The difference between a future of high fertility rates and one where people are better able to choose is stark: if fertility rates in areas of high population growth come down towards the global average, the world will reach a global population of about 9.3bn in 2050, and about 10bn in 2100. But if fertility rates remain high in the most populous countries, the 2100 population will be more than 15bn.

Osotimehin said countries must do more to help themselves: “It is unacceptable for countries to rely on donor money for reproductive health. The welfare of their people is their mandate.” He said it would cost only $2bn to give access to family planning to the 250 million women who would like it but lack access. “The budget of the average developing country does not give enough money to issues of women and reproductive health. That has to change. If it does not change, it becomes unsustainable.”

But he also said donors were failing to make sufficient commitments. “Family planning has not been funded as it should have been. Donors need to provide resources … there has been a reduction [in money made available].”

Osotimehin also said at the press conference that the opportunity had been missed to educate people on reproductive health and family planning, during a drive to prevent HIV infection, echoing comments he made to the Guardian earlier in the month.

With high population growth, many scientists predict thatthe pressure on food and agricultural productivity and other natural resources may become intolerable, and conditions for the poorest people will deteriorate further, rather than improving.

John Cleland, of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said: “The escape from poverty and hunger is made more difficult by rapid population growth.”

Rapid growth will also exacerbate the impact of other global problems, such as climate change and other environmental impacts. Steven Sinding, a population expert at Columbia University, said: “The pace of growth poses enormous challenges for many of the poorest countries, which lack the resources not only to keep up with demand for infrastructure, basic health and education services and job opportunities for the rising number of young people, but also to adapt to climate change.”

Separately on Wednesday, the Official for National Statistics forecast that the UK population would grow to 70 million by 2020, up from 62.3 million in 2010.

El Hierro Submarine Eruption

El Hierro Submarine Eruption : Natural Hazards.

El Hierro Submarine Eruption

acquired October 23, 2011 download large image (779 KB, JPEG)
acquired October 23, 2011 download GeoTIFF file (3 MB, TIFF)

Off the coast of El Hierro, in the southwest reaches of the Canary Islands, Earth has been spewing gas and rock into the ocean. The island off the Atlantic coast of North Africa—built mostly from a shield volcano—has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011, and an underwater volcanic eruption started in mid-October. The eruption is the first in the island chain in nearly 40 years.

On October 23, 2011, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this natural-color view of El Hierro and the North Atlantic Ocean surrounding it. A milky green plume in the water stretches 25-30 kilometers at its widest and perhaps 100 kilometers long, from a large mass near the coast to thin tendrils as it spreads to the southwest. The plume is likely a mix of volcanic gases and a blend of crushed pumice and seafloor rock.

Tremors were reported for the past several months from seismic stations on El Hierro, particularly in the northwest of the island. Then on October 12, 2011, the strength of the tremors significantly decreased while foaming, rock-strewn plumes appeared in the sea to the south of the island. The underwater plume of volcanic debris has persisted for nearly two weeks and has been mixed and dispersed by ocean surface currents. The eruption is occurring in water that is tens to a few hundred meters deep.

Geologist and blogger Erik Klemetti offered this analysis: “It looks like the main fissure might be 2-3 kilometers in length and is close to on strike with the rift axis for the main El Hierro edifice. Ramon Ortiz, coordinator of a government scientific team, said that if/when the eruption reaches shallower water, we should expect to see the surface water start to steam, followed by explosions of steam and magma and finally the emergence of an island.”

For local seismic information from El Hierro (in Spanish), visit the Instituto Geografico Nacional.

  1. References

  2. The Daily Mail (2011, September 29) Earthquake swarm on Canary Island of El Hierro sparks fears of volcanic eruption. Accessed October 25, 2011.
  3. Global Volcanism Program (2011, October 18) Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: Hierro. Accessed October 25, 2011.
  4. Klemetti, Erik (2011, October 21) Eruptions Blog: Vulcan’s View: Eruption News and Volcanoes From Space. Accessed October 25, 2011.

NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using data from the MODIS Rapid Response team. Caption by Mike Carlowicz.

Instrument: 
Terra – MODIS